Ottoman Empire Maps

Ottoman Empire was founded in 1299 by Osman Ghazi and consistently grew from 1299 to 1683. The first 10 rulers of the Ottoman Empire is considered as the most successful kings.

Ottomans Kings carried these titles: Sultan (Arabic: King, Ruler), Padişah (Persian: Shah Of the World), Khan (Turkish: Referring to ancestors from Central Asia)

Additionally the first two rulers, Osman I and Orhan were called as Ghazi (The warrior) since the Ottomans were no more than a warlike principality then. Murad I (1362-1389) considered as the first Sultan, since he built the foundations of Ottoman army, society, laws of the Ottoman State.

The Ottoman Sultans also carried the title of Caliph (Halifa) from the time of Selim I (1512-1520). Caliph is an Islamic title. Meaning the spiritual leader of Islamic World. This religious title was used by the Ottoman Sultans after the conquest of Mecca and Medina.

Here are useful Ottoman Empire Maps to show you the timeline of Ottoman Empire.

Notice: Right click isn’t allowed on the body of the page. Click links below maps for viewing them.

Foundation Of The Ottoman Empire

The ancestor of Ottomans, Ertuğrul Ghazi settled in Söğüt and Domaniç plateaus. It was neighbor to significant cities of Byzantine Empire, İznik (Nicaea) and Bursa (Prussa). These spots are located in Turkey of today.

Ottoman Empire Map Foundation 1299 – At Its Height 1699

Ottoman Empire Map
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Osman Ghazi

Founder and first Sultan, Osman Ghazi had inherited a warlike clan from his father Ertuğrul Ghazi. He soon converted this clan into a Turkish princedom. Sultan Osman leaded his community successfully. He had also been a pioneer of Ottoman kings for expanding the boundaries in the direction of the west.

Ottomans aimed to be the rulers of Europe as well as Asia. The Ottoman Princedom officially established in 1299 by the Osman Ghazi (also known as Othman).

The First Ten Sultans, Rulers, Kings Of Ottoman Empire

Osman Ghazi, Orhan Ghazi, Murad I, Bayezid I, Mehmed I, Murad II, Mehmed II (The Conqueror), Bayezid II, Selim I (The Resolute), Suleiman I (The Magnificent). These accomplished Sultans ruled the Empire from 1299 to 1566. This is the most successful era of Ottoman Empire. In other words: The rise of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Elite Infantry: Janissary Unites In A Battle

Ottomans managed to create a great war-machine named Janissaries. Devşirme refers to the system in which healthful and powerful children are taken from the villages in Eastern Europe and trained in military affairs and religion in Janissary army centers.

Ottoman Janissary Troops Attact In Battle Of Mohacs 1526

Ottoman army battle
Ottoman army assaults in Battle of Mohacs

Conquest Of Constantinople By Mehmed II

Mehmed II (The Conqueror) was the second most famous ruler of Ottoman Empire (After Suleiman The Magnificent). This map is referring the capturing of Constantinople by the Ottomans. (1453) Ottomans proclaimed the new-conquered city as their new capital. Named it as Konstantiniyye. Its modern name: Istanbul was given in the late Ottoman era.

Map Of Ottoman Empire By The Conquest Of Constantinople

Map The Fall of Constantinople
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Reign Of Selim I (The Resolute)

Ottomans, which grew into multi-national Empire after the conquest of Constantinople, captured Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem and Egypt during the reign of Selim I (1512-1520). Ottoman Empire dominated the Silk Road stretching from China and Spice Route stretching from India to Europe; therefore, it had a source of endless income.

Ottoman Empire Map Depicts Selim I’s Conquests In The Middle East

Ottoman empire greatest extent
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Reign Of Suleiman the Magnificent

The rise of Ottomans hit the top with Suleiman I. Comprehensive reforms were made in law, education, architecture, social life, culture and art and great developments were achieved in these fields. Therefore Sultan Suleiman is mentioned as Suleiman the Magnificent in European history.

Map Of Suleiman The Magnificent’s Empire

Ottoman Empire Map under Sultan Suleiman The Magnificent Rule
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Sultanate Of Women

From the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, the era called “Sultanate of Women” started. The wives of the Emperors had strong influence on the administration. This period lasted 1550 to 1656. The first influential Empress of this period considered as the Hürrem Sultan (Also known as Roxelana)

Ottoman Empire kept on expanding even after the death of Sultan Suleiman due to the successful state administration by the scholarly Grand Viziers (Prime Ministers).

Ottoman Empire Greatest Achivements Map
The Peak Of The Ottoman Empire Map
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Reforms at Ottoman Empire in 18th And 19th Centuries

Social and cultural developments like Renaissance and Reform in Europe did not resonate with Ottomans; as a result of which, Ottomans were left behind in terms of art, culture and military.

During this worsening period for the empire, some able Sultans began modernization periods but their effort could not prevent the empire from going into downfall.

Traditional Janissary units are removed and Nizam-ı Cedit (New Army) is founded as a part of westernization.

Ottoman Soldiers In 19th Century

Ottoman Empire Map Ottoman Army Marching Soldiers Infantry
19th Century Ottoman Army & Soldiers Marching

Decline Of The Ottoman Empire On a Map

This map displays the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The territories that lost from 1829 to 1914 depicted with vivid colours. Constant battles devastated the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century. They fought against Austria and Russia most of the time.

Map Of Ottoman Empire 1800s

Fall Of Ottoman Empire On A Map
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Fall Of The Ottoman Empire Map 1914

Ottomans fell after the World War I (1918) They fought alongside with Austria and Germany (Central Powers), therefore large territories were lost to England, Russia and France by the end of the war.

Ottoman army was decisively defeated in major battles except for the Gallipoli Campaign. The allies pushed hard to pass through the Dardanelles to seize the capital, Istanbul, but they failed.

The Ottoman resistance was unexpectedly tough in Çanakkale (Dardanelles). The defence operations lead by a young General, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of Turkish Republic.

Ottoman Empire Map 1914

Ottoman Empire Map Before WW1 1914
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Turkey Of Today

Turkey is eventually founded from the heartland of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul is no longer a capital but still the largest and most important city of Turkey. Ankara is the capital of modern day Turkey.

Why Ankara Is The Capital And Not Istanbul?

The first parliament of Modern Turkey is established in Ankara during the post WWI years. Istanbul was under British occupancy. Turkish Independence Army (Led By Mustafa Kemal Ataturk) had to fight against allied powers from 1918 to 1922 to re-gain Anatolia (Asia Minor Peninsula – can be seen on the below map). Operation is led by the members of Turkish Parliament which is based in Ankara.

Map of Modern Day Turkey
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Maps Of Ottoman Empire With History And Facts

  • Notice: Ottoman Empire Maps are picked randomly from the internet. They are used by many people in their blogs. Therefore I do not think the copyright would be a problem. They almost became anonymous on the web. If you think that one of the maps is belongs to your website, I will remove it when you declare it.

By Serhat Engül

6 thoughts on “Ottoman Empire Map, Timeline, Greatest Extent, Facts”

  1. Hello,

    Appreciate the history and pictorial maps to go along? Can I possibly download this information to share with others as I am currently sharing the rise and decline of the Ottoman empire with Bible students?

    Thank you,


  2. You got a mistake on your article, where do you get the name “Palestine” From Map nº5? This name was a mokery name created by Titus when he destroyed Jerusalem and renamed the kingdom of Judea by the name of “Palestine” and it was inhabitted by greeks and romans. The Ottoman empire called that Zone “Siria”. And then when they lost the war against the Britts, the Britts called the Zone “Siria”, Palestine reviving the name of mokery that Titus created. In conclusion, no palestine never existed in the Ottoman empire, it was called: Siria.

    1. Dear AbduLatif, Thank you for your contribution. First of all, I did not create these maps. As explained at the end of the article, they are collected from internet, in order to visualise and support the story. I checked about your argument. I have not seen any reputable source which support your claims. Britannica says: “The word Palestine derives from Philistia, the name given by Greek writers to the land of the Philistines, who in the 12th century bce occupied a small pocket of land on the southern coast, between modern Tel Aviv–Yafo and Gaza.” It does not mention about any “mockery”. As far as I know Palestine was a common name used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Anyway, thank you for the review.

  3. History always have pluses and minuses depend who wrote it. So Mr. Latif have to understand but under his objection there is an information about Palestine name right or wrong but still it is an info about the name. Serhat you did a good job, the way you describe Ottoman Empire history is very informative and easy to memorize and understand for the history students. Well done! Keep it up.

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